Carbonated liquids may help swallowing dysfunction (small Swedish study)

This is interesting research from Sweden on the effect of carbonated liquid on swallowing dysfunction. Though the study was done on 48 patients with Lewy body dementia, the findings likely apply to all in the Brain Support Network community.

Two interesting points were made:

1- While 40 patients had swallowing dysfunction confirmed through videofluoroscopy, 14 of these did not perceive they had swallowing symptoms.

2- Out of the patients with swallowing dysfunction, 87% had “an overall improved swallowing function with carbonated liquid.” This was true even that the pharyngeal transit time of carbonated liquid was quicker than think liquid or thickened liquid.

Of course you can test whether carbonated liquids work (for you or for your family member) by requesting they be tried during videofluoroscopy.

The abstract is below.

Robin

——————–

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28848329

Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2017 Aug 8;12:1215-1222.

Effects of carbonated liquid on swallowing dysfunction in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia.

Larsson V, Torisson G, Bülow M, Londos E.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Swallowing dysfunction is an increasingly recognized problem in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD), which can result in aspiration pneumonia and death. Few studies have examined potential ways of improving swallowing function in this fragile patient group. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing dysfunction and carbonated liquid using videofluoroscopy in DLB and PDD patients.

METHODS:
A total of 48 patients with DLB and PDD were referred for a clinical examination with videofluoroscopy. Descriptive overall assessments were provided at the time of the examination regarding swallowing function and the effects of different modifications, including carbonated thin liquid (CTL). Additionally, a repeated measures quantitative retrospective analysis has been performed comparing 1) thin liquids; 2) thickened liquids and 3) CTLs, with regard to the quantitative variables 1) pharyngeal transit time (PTT); 2) pharyngeal retention and 3) tracheal penetration.

RESULTS:
In all, 40/48 (83%) of the patients had a swallowing dysfunction, which was confirmed on videofluoroscopy, with 34/40 (85%) patients having a pharyngeal-type dysfunction. A total of 14/40 (35%) patients with an objective swallowing impairment did not have any subjective swallowing symptoms. Out of the patients with swallowing dysfunction, 87% had an overall improved swallowing function with carbonated liquid. PTT for carbonated liquid (median 633 ms, interquartile range [IQR] 516-786 ms) was quicker than for thin liquid (760 ms, IQR 613-940 ms, P=0.014) and thickened liquid (880.0 ms, IQR 600-1,500 ms, P<0.001). No significant effect was seen in residue or penetration.

CONCLUSION:
The majority of patients with DLB or PDD had a swallowing dysfunction, sometimes without subjective swallowing symptoms, which improved with carbonated liquid. This highlights the importance of investigating patients with videofluoroscopy and to carry out a prospective interventional study to further evaluate carbonated liquid, also addressing the effects on quality of life, aspiration and mortality.

Results from AbbVie phase 1 study of tau antibodies in PSP

At the recent Alzheimer’s Association International Conference, reports were given on phase 1 trials of tau antibodies. Tau is the protein involved in Alzheimer’s, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration. Phase 1 studies are focused on safety, not efficacy.

Alzforum posted a summary over the weekend on this tau research that involved PSP volunteers. Basically, the experimental drug seemed safe, and AbbVie is proceeding to a phase 2 trial in PSP. UCSF is one of the trial sites.

You will hear plenty more about this research is you attend our October 28th PSP/CBD Research Update and Family Conference in the SF Bay Area. Registration will open soon. We are hoping that AbbVie will sponsor part of our conference. Keep your fingers crossed!

Here’s a link to the Alzforum summary about this PSP research:

www.alzforum.org/news/conference-coverage/high-dose-av-and-tau-immunotherapies-complete-initial-safety-tests

High-Dose Aβ and Tau Immunotherapies Complete Initial Safety Tests
Series – Alzheimer’s Association International Conference 2017
27 Aug 2017
Alzforum

Robin

 

Benefits of palliative care, and list of palliative care programs in Northern California

Recently I came across a research article on the emerging role of palliative care in multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The article makes the point that palliative care emphasizes “quality of life in progressive disorders” and is beneficial for all neurodegenerative disorders.

If you’d like to read the full article, check out this link:

www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S135380201630400X

Palliative Care and its Emerging Role in Multiple System Atrophy and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
January 2017, volume 34, pages 714

I had a feeling that if I shared this link, many of you would ask “where can I find a palliative care program?” Brain Support Network volunteer Denise Dagan created a list of as many palliative care programs as she could find on the Peninsula and in the South Bay. Since many of these medical clinics exist throughout Northern California — Sutter Health, Kaiser, PAMF, etc — this list should be useful to most of you on this list.

Robin

————————

PALLIATIVE CARE PROGRAMS ON THE PENINSULA AND IN THE SOUTH BAY
By Denise Dagan (Brain Support Network volunteer)
August 2017

California Pacific Medical Center (CPMC), in San Francisco, is part of Sutter Health. Information about their program can be found here: http://www.cpmc.org/services/palliative.html, or for more information contact Linda Blum, RN, NP, at 415-600-4576.

The Chinese Hospital, San Francisco Call 415-677-2349 for information.

Community Hospital of the Monterey Peninsula Ask your doctor for more information.

El Camino Hospital, Mountain View Call 650-988-7624 for information or visit https://www.elcaminohospital.org/services/palliative-care

Hospice By the Bay offers palliative care in collaboration with these hospitals:
Marin General, Sonoma Valley, Sonoma Acres and Broadway Villa Sonoma. Call 415-927-2273 for information.

Jewish Family and Children’s Services of San Francisco, the Peninsula, Marin and Sonoma Counties offers palliative care through Seniors At Home. Call 844-222-3212 or visit the JFCS’ Seniors At Home website.

Kaiser Permanente offers palliative care at several locations around the bay:
Oakland – Inpatient 510-801-7246, Outpatient 510-752-1834
Richmond – Outpatient 510-752-1834
San Francisco – Outpatient 415-833-0204
San Jose – Inpatient 408-972-6888, Outpatient 408-972-7311

Palliative Care


Santa Clara – Inpatient 408-851-7578, Outpatient 408-851-0537,

Palliative Care

Laguna Honda Hospital, San Francisco Call 415-682-1230 for information or to arrange a tour.

Mission Hospice & Home Care, San Mateo, offers in-home palliative care. Call the Clinical Outreach Team 650-554-1000 for information or visit https://www.missionhospice.org/services/transitions/.

Palo Alto Medical Foundation (PAMF) offers palliative care in several locations:
Dublin, Fremont, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Cruz, and Sunnyvale

http://www.pamf.org/palliativecare/locations/

Pathways offers palliative care for any individual or private physician referral on the peninsula, south and east bay areas. Call 844-755-7855 for information.

Regional Medical Center, San Jose Call 877-868-4827 for information

St. Francis Memorial Hospital, San Francisco Call 415-353-6856 or 415-353-6180 for information.

St. Mary’s Medical Center, San Francisco Call 415-750-5907 for information.

San Francisco General Hospital offers inpatient palliative care in Comfort Care Suites. Ask your doctor for more information or visit http://hospital-zsfg.medicine.ucsf.edu/services/palliative.html.

San Mateo Medical Center, San Mateo County Health System Call 650-573-2381 for Information.

Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose Call 408-793-5974 for information.

Season’s Hospice and Palliative Care offers palliative care in both San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties. Call 855-812-1136 or email [email protected] for information.

Sequoia Hospital, in Redwood City, offers palliative care through Pathways. Sequoia Hospital is a co-owner of Pathways. Call 888-755-7855 for information.

Stanford offers palliative care in these locations:
Palo Alto – Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital. Call 650-497-8963 for information.
Palo Alto – Palliative Care at Stanford Hospital. Call 650-724-0385 for information.
San Jose – Cancer Center South Bay. Call 408-426-4900 for information.

Sutter Health This page has a list of 33 palliative care doctors affiliated with Sutter Health (including, CPMC, Mills-Peninsula Medical Center, PAMF and Sutter Pacific Medical Foundation) in several locations:
Alameda, Auburn, Berkeley, Burlingame, Castro Valley, Fremont, Hayward, Modesto, Oakland, Palo Alto, Roseville, Sacramento, San Francisco, San Jose, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, Sunnyvale, and Yuba City
http://www.sutterhealth.org/findadoctor/northern-california-hospice-and-palliative-medicine-doctors-results.html?Nao=0&recPerPage=100&Nao=0

UCSF Medical Center offers inpatient and outpatient palliative care at both Parnassus and Mission Bay, and inpatient palliative care at SF General Hospital. Call 415-502-6861 for more information.

Veterans Affairs (VA) offers palliative care at several locations:
Palo Alto VA Health Care System – contact them through [email protected]
San Francisco VA Medical Center offers hospice and palliative care through Geriatric Services. Call 415-221-4810, ext. 2-3224 for information.

Visiting Angels offers palliative care in several locations:
Burlingame – Call 650-344-2178 for information.
Fremont – Call 510-284-0000 for information.
San Jose – Call 408-241-5100 for information.
Sunnyvale – Call 408-735-0977 for information.

Vitas Healthcare offers palliative care in several locations:
Milpitas – Call 408-964-6800 for information.
San Francisco – Call 415-874-4400 for information.
San Mateo – Call 650-350-1835 for information.

With Grace Hospice and Palliative Care, San Jose Call 408-444-5500 for information.

 

Stanford/BSN Webinar – Diagnosing PSP, Wed, Aug 30, 2-3pm PT – Register Now!

Brain Support Network is kicking off a webinar series with Stanford Movement Disorders Center, one of our Northern California partners.

Join us for a free, one-hour webinar on diagnosing progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The speaker is Stanford movement disorders specialist Kathleen Poston, MD. Please spread the word!

****************

Diagnosing Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

When: Wednesday, Aug 30, 2017
2-3pm Pacific Time (US and Canada)

Speaker: Kathleen Poston, MD, MS, movement disorders specialist, Stanford Movement Disorders Center

Register in advance for this webinar:

https://stanford.zoom.us/webinar/register/d19798267307ba908c34be5db4a05ad8

After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the webinar.

Note: If you can’t make it on August 30th, we encourage you to register for the webinar so that you will be alerted when the recording is available online.

****************

Further details on the webinar topic:

Dr. Kathleen Poston, a movement disorder specialist with extensive experience with PSP, will address these topics:

* how is PSP diagnosed?
* how many years does the average person wait for a diagnosis?
* what are the two main types of PSP?
* what’s the new diagnostic criteria for probable PSP?
* what’s the accuracy of a PSP diagnosis?

There will be time for audience questions on PSP.

****************

Further details on the speaker:

The speaker is Dr. Kathleen Poston, a movement disorders specialist at Stanford University. Dr. Poston research focuses on the development of novel neuroimaging biomarkers to improve diagnostic accuracy and monitor the efficacy of investigational treatments for Parkinson’s Disease and other movement disorders, such as PSP. She is the co-investigator for the NINDS-funded Udall Center of Excellence for Parkinson’s Disease Research.

****************

Further details on the webinar host:

The webinar will be hosted by Robin Riddle, who coordinates a Parkinson’s Information & Referral Center at Stanford. She is also the CEO of Brain Support Network, a nonprofit focusing on the four atypical parkinsonism disorders, including PSP.

Brain Support Network is organizing a research update and family conference on Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Corticobasal Degeneration on Saturday, October 28th, in the San Francisco Bay Area. To be notified when registration opens for this conference, please join the PSP email list.

****************

Register in advance for this webinar:

https://stanford.zoom.us/webinar/register/d19798267307ba908c34be5db4a05ad8

****************

Questions? Please contact Robin Riddle.

BSN’s Allan Marcus Fund Gave Six Grants in 2017

The Allan Marcus Fund for Families in Need with PSP has successfully completed its giving for 2017.  The Marcus family and Brain Support Network (BSN) approved six grants to families with loved ones with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP).

The grants to PSP families provided in-home caregiving, travel to family reunions, needed physical therapy, and more.  Congratulations to all the families in the US who received grants.  It was an honor to hear your stories and help make what we hope will be precious memories.

The Marcus family aims to provide this fund annually.  Please join BSN’s PSP email list to be kept informed as more information is available in the new year.

PSP and CBS excerpts from curriculum on dementia for healthcare professionals

Someone in our local support group recently sent me this link to US Dept. of Health and Human Services’s curriculum for physicians (especially primary care physicians) and healthcare professionals (social workers, psychologists, pharmacists, emergency department staffs, dentists, etc.) on dementia. Though the web address includes the term “Alzheimer’s,” frontotemporal dementia is also mentioned in this curriculum:

Training Curriculum: Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias
Health Resources and Services Administration (part of Dept of HHS)
bhw.hrsa.gov/grants/geriatrics/alzheimers-curriculum

One of the types of frontotemporal dementia is the “motor type,” which include corticobasal syndrome and progressive supranuclear palsy.

Here are some excerpts on frontotemporal dementia.

Robin

————————–

Overview of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia for an Interprofessional Team (Module 1)

Frontotemporal Dementia Types
* There are at least 3 distinctive clinical syndromes, each with heterogeneous neuropathology.
– Progressive behavior/personality decline: behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD)
– Progressive language decline: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA)
– Progressive motor decline: corticobasal syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or [progressive] supranuclear palsy. FTD with progressive motor decline is rare. FTD with progressive motor decline can involve movement problems/slowed movement, muscle rigidity (Parkinsonian symptoms), body stiffness, and changes in behavior or language.
* Behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) is the most common variant. It is characterized by marked personality changes and changes in social conduct.


Understanding Early-Stage Dementia for an Interprofessional Team (Module 5)

Early-Stage Frontotemporal Degeneration (FTD): Overview
* FTD is a heterogeneous group of diseases with overlapping clinical symptoms but different causative genes and differing underlying pathologies.
* FTD is caused by damage to frontal and/or temporal lobes. Impairments generally progress quickly but memory often remains intact.
* Persons with FTD demonstrate changes in behavior and personality, language problems, and motor problems.
( Memory impairment is minimal in early stages.


Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Persons Living with Dementia (Module 12)

When to Consider Hospice Care in Persons with End-Stage FTD
* Persons with end-stage FTD are generally younger and healthier than persons with other types of end-stage dementia.
* As with other dementias, FTD is often not recognized as a terminal diagnosis.
* End-stage FTD may “look different” than other advanced dementias.

 

Apathy – description and treatment

Brain Support Network volunteer Denise Dagan came across this article in a recent Parkinson’s Disease (PD) organization’s newsletter about apathy in PD.  Certainly apathy occurs in many of the disorders in the Brain Support Network community as well — especially progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP).  That’s why I’m sharing the article within our network.

These statements in the article caught Denise’s eye:

“Persons with apathy generally do not recognize the symptoms, so caregivers will need to bring it to medical attention. … It is important to assess for apathy because those with apathy are 2.5 times more likely to report poor quality of life in comparison to those without apathy. Apathy is also associated with more severe motor impairment. PD patients with apathy are less physically active and may not adhere to medical recommendations. Relationships may suffer as well since caregivers often experience more frustration and stress.”

The author of the article is Rosa Chuang, MD.  She may be familiar to some in our multiple system atrophy (MSA) group.  She used to practice at Stanford but is now in Seattle.

The article is copied below.

Robin

—————————–

www.apdaparkinson.org/community/northwest/about/newsletters/

Apathy in Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s Pathfinder (Newsletter by APDA Northwest)
Summer 2017
By Dr. Rosalind Chuang

Apathy is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease but often times not recognized or commonly mistaken for depression. Some studies show that 30-40% of PD patients have apathy, but the frequency can range from 20-70%, depending on how patients are asked. It can occur at any stage of PD and can even occur before motor symptoms develop. It is important to assess for apathy because those with apathy are 2.5 times more likely to report poor quality of life in comparison to those without apathy. Apathy is also associated with more severe motor impairment. PD patients with apathy are less physically active and may not adhere to medical recommendations. Relationships may suffer as well since caregivers often experience more frustration and stress.

WHAT IS APATHY?

Apathy is defined as:
• Loss of motivation or lack of initiative
• Loss of pleasure
• Decreased goal directed behaviors
• Decreased goal directed cognitive activity
• Decreased interests and emotions (reduced display of emotions)

WHAT TO LOOK FOR IF YOU ARE CONCERNED ABOUT APATHY

A common complaint from family and friends is that the PD patient just “sits around” or “doesn’t seem to care about anything.” Nothing gets done and a person often declines social activities if given a choice. This can be misinterpreted as fatigue, laziness, or lack of empathy/ uncaring.

Persons with apathy generally do not recognize the symptoms, so caregivers will need to bring it to medical attention. Medical providers may ask specific questions from the Starkstein apathy scale to determine apathy. Some questions on the scale include:

• Any interest in learning new things?
• Does anything interest you?
• Do you look for things to do?
• Are you concerned about your condition? Or unconcerned about many things?
• Does someone have to tell you what to do each day? Do you need a push to get started on things?
• Are you neither happy nor sad, just in between?

As you can see, these questions are similar to those to assess for depression, so sometimes it can be difficult to separate apathy from depression. Often times, patients can have both depression and apathy, but in ~10- 28% of time, patients can have apathy alone.

WHY IS IT NOT DEPRESSION?

In both depression and apathy, a person may no longer enjoy things. However, someone with depression may endorse feeling “blue” or sad. Other “negative” symptoms of depression include inappropriate guilt, loss of appetite, loss of sleep, or thoughts of death. An apathetic person does not cry frequently or have suicidal thoughts.

TREATMENT

It is important to evaluate if the symptoms are from apathy alone because it can affect treatment. If apathy is associated with depression or anxiety, treatment of co-morbid conditions can help reduce apathy. Sometimes isolated apathy can also respond to the SSRIs used to treat depression, but generally studies don’t show good response. Dopamine medications (levodopa or dopamine agonists) may also improve apathy. (In some patient who have undergone deep brain stimulation for PD, rapid withdrawal of their PD medications resulted in apathy.) In one trial, PD apathy responded to rivastigmine, a medication used for dementia, even though the patients did not actually have dementia.

For isolated apathy, I generally recommend non-pharmacologic treatment. These include:

• Write down at least 3 daily goals and 3 weekly goals. These goals can be physical, social, or thinking activities.
• Daily goals should be specific and can be reasonably achieved.
• Create a schedule: be specific when each task will should be accomplished.
• Review the written list at breakfast, lunch and dinner to remind yourself of the next goal.
• Cross off each task as you complete them.
• Say “yes” to at least one thing every day even if you don’t feel like it.
• Maintain routine: continue to do things you used to do, even if you don’t feel like it.
• Recall an activity that you used to enjoy and try to restart that activity.
• Exercise even if you don’t feel like it.
• Must leave the house at least once a day

Even though apathy is not as easily treated as the motor symptoms of PD or other non-motor symptoms such as depression, simply recognizing and understanding apathy is an important part of overall management of Parkinson’s disease.

Save the Date! Saturday, October 28, PSP/CBD Research Update and Family Conference

Save the date!

Brain Support Network will host the:

PSP/CBD Research Update and Family Conference
Saturday, October 28, 2017
Crowne Plaza Foster City (San Francisco Bay Area)

This conference is for families coping with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD).   Professionals and anyone in the community are also welcome to attend.

BSN’s planning partner is Dr. Adam Boxer and the team at the UCSF Memory & Aging Center. UCSF is the lead institution for PSP and CBD clinical trials. We are lucky to have them in our backyard!

The conference will be run from 9am to 5pm. The morning will feature international researchers in town for a major conference on PSP, CBD, and tau. The afternoon will feature Bay Area clinicians (from UCSF and Stanford), healthcare professionals, and families.

We anticipate registration will open in early September. Join our PSP or CBD email lists and we’ll send you an update when registration opens. Alternatively, check back at our website in September to register. Our meeting facilities are planned to accommodate 150 participants.

Stay tuned for more details!

Robin

 

Inheritability of PSP

This is an interesting, short question-and-answer on the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (part of NIH) about the inheritability of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), from September 2012.

Robin

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rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/7471/progressive-supranuclear-palsy/cases/36421

Progressive supranuclear palsy
Genetics and Rare Diseases Information Center (part of NIH)
Last updated 9/12/2012

Question: My identical twin sister has been diagnosed with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). As it seems this disease may have a genetic cause, what is the chance that I would also develop PSP? And within what timeframe?

 

Answer: The following information may help to address your question:

What is the chance of developing progressive supranuclear palsy if a relative is affected?

Researchers do not yet completely understand the causes of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), so it is not possible to predict the chance of a relative developing the condition if one family member has been diagnosed. Most of the time, only one person in a family develops PSP. It is not very common to have multiple members of a family develop PSP. One study found that 7% of individuals with PSP had a family history of potentially related conditions (including dementia or parkinsonism), which suggests there may be a shared genetic risk factor.[1][2]

A few genetic risk factors (particularly a gene called MAPT) are known to play a role in the development of PSP.[3][4] However, these genetic risk factors have only been found in a few families. Researchers suspect that there are other genetic factors that haven’t been found yet that also contribute to progressive supranuclear palsy.

 

If a family member has a known genetic risk factor for progressive supranuclear palsy, what is the chance a relative has inherited it?

Close relatives such as parents, siblings, and children of an affected individual have a greater chance of sharing a genetic predisposition than do aunts, uncles, grandparents or cousins. Identical twins share their entire DNA, so they should have the same genetic risk factors.

 

If an individual inherited a known risk factor, what is the chance of developing progressive supranuclear palsy?

Having a genetic risk factor increases the chance of developing progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP); it does not guarantee that an individual will develop this disease at some point in their lifetime. The exact risk of developing PSP in an individual with a genetic predisposition is currently unknown.[5]

 

What is the average age at diagnosis for progressive supranuclear palsy?

Individuals with progressive supranuclear palsy usually experience the first symptoms of this disease while in their 60s.[1]

 

We hope this information is helpful. We strongly recommend you discuss this information with your doctor. If you still have questions, please contact us.

Warm regards,
GARD Information Specialist

 

References
1. Progressive supranuclear palsy. Genetics Home Reference. March 2011; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/progressive-supranuclear-palsy. Accessed 9/7/2012.

2. Donker Kaat L, Boon AJ, Azmani A, Kamphorst W, Breteler MM, Anar B, Heutink P, van Swieten JC. Familial aggregation of parkinsonism in progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurology. 2009; 73:98-105. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19458322. Accessed 9/12/2012.

3. Rojo A, Pernaute RS, Fontán A, Ruíz PG, Honnorat J, Lynch T, Chin S, Gonzalo I, Rábano A, Martínez A, Daniel S, Pramstaller P, Morris H, Wood N, Lees A, Tabernero C, Nyggard T, Jackson AC, Hanson A, de Yébenes JG. Clinical genetics of familial progressive supranuclear palsy. Brain. 1999; 122:1233-1245. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10388790. Accessed 9/6/2012.

4. Dickson DW, Rademakers R, Hutton ML. Progressive supranuclear palsy: pathology and genetics. Brain Pathology. 2007; 17:74-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17493041. Accessed 9/6/2012.

5. Litvan I. Update on epidemiological aspects of progressive supranuclear palsy. Movement Disorders. 2003; 18:S43-S50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14502655. Accessed 9/6/2012.

 

“Square patches of light remember you” – reflections on grandmother with PSP

This beautiful remembrance, “Square patches of light remember you,” was published in the June 13, 2017 issue of Neurology journal.  These reflections are by Bronte Nicole Ficek, whose grandmother Lola had progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP).  See:

www.neurology.org/content/88/24/2333.full